A winter storm is a meteorological phenomenon that causes significant snowfall combined with other potentially hazardous conditions, such as freezing rain, strong winds, blowing snow or extreme cold. Freezing rain is drizzle or rain that freezes in contact with the ground and exposed objects. This frozen water forms a layer of transparent ice that makes sidewalks and driving surfaces slippery.

Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of winter storms and freezing rain events.


Injuries and Accidents

Snow, ice, blowing snow, strong winds or a combination of these conditions can:

  • Make driving conditions dangerous: high risk of car accidents.
  • Make walking more hazardous: risk of falling (bruises, fractures) or risk of being injured by falling tree branches.
  • Mean that you have to exert yourself physically to shovel snow: risk of back, shoulder and neck pain caused by repetitive movements.
  • Cause power outages: higher risk of fires, burns and explosions caused by flammable gases from back-up heating or lighting systems (space heaters, kerosene lamps, candles), gas generators, barbecues or camping stoves. Higher risk of electrocution when power is restored after an outage.

Heart Conditions

Snow accumulation can:

  • Make walking difficult and energy intensive: risk of raising your heart rate and aggravating heart problems.
  • Require several shovelling sessions, a vigorous exercise that rapidly raises blood pressure and heart rate: risk of heart attack or angina and increased risk of a heart problem if shovelling is done during cold weather due to a higher metabolic rate.


Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur:

  • During a power outage: high risk if fuel-powered appliances are used indoors, such as back-up heating or lighting systems, gas generators, barbecues or camping stoves.
  • If you are in a car with the engine running: high risk if the exhaust pipe is blocked by snow.

For more information, read the Carbon Monoxide Poisoning page.


Food poisoning can occur:

  • During a power outage: the risk increases as the temperature in refrigerators and freezers rises.

Protection and Prevention

To protect yourself against the risks associated with winter storms and freezing rain, take the following preventive measures:

Before Winter

  • Buy traction aids for your shoes such as crampons.
  • Purchase a light shovel with an ergonomic shaft and other shovels that make clearing snow easier, such as a sleigh shovel or push-style shovel, which allows to move snow rather than lift it.
  • Have your chimney cleaned.
  • Have your doctor check your risk of heart disease before you start the physically demanding activity of shovelling snow.
  • Get emergency kits for the car and home that contain drinking water, non-perishable food, a flashlight, a blanket and first aid items. Read the Emergency Kit This hyperlink will open in a new window. and Emergency Kit for Your Vehicle This hyperlink will open in a new window. pages on the Ministère de la Sécurité publique du Québec’s site.
  • Get your vehicle ready for winter and, most importantly, make sure you get your winter tires put on before the first snow.

When a Winter Storm or Freezing Rain Is Forecast

  • Make sure you find out about the coming weather conditions.
  • Plan your outings to the grocery store, for example, so that you go out as little as possible during or shortly after the storm or freezing rain.
  • Make sure you have back-up lighting in the event of a power outage (flashlights, candles).
  • Make sure you have enough prescription medication.
  • Find out about the condition of relatives who live alone or in geographically remote regions.

During and Shortly after the Storm

  • Be careful when walking. Use traction aids such as crampons on your boots to avoid slipping on slippery surfaces and injuring yourself.
  • Find out about road conditions This hyperlink will open in a new window. before driving.
  • Adjust your driving to road conditions, avoid sudden manoeuvres and slow down. Go to the CAA-Québec site This hyperlink will open in a new window. for more winter driving tips.
  • Find out about the condition of relatives who live alone in geographically remote regions.


  • Do warm-up exercises (flexion, extension of the lower back, stretches) before shovelling.
  • Use the proper shovelling technique:
    • place your feet shoulder width apart,
    • when lifting snow, bend your knees and use your thigh muscles,
    • avoid twisting and rotating your body,
    • avoid lifting snow above a height of 4 feet (1.3 m).
  • Avoid shovelling after eating. A full stomach can strain the heart during vigorous physical activity.
  • Take breaks to rest your muscles and heart.
  • Make sure you clear away snow that could block the exhaust pipe on your vehicle before you start the engine to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Read the recommendations for preventing the harmful effects of cold temperatures, les frostbite et l’hypothermia.

Power Outages

  • Never use a barbecue or any other fuel-powered appliance indoors. If you have to use a generator, put it outside and far enough away from doors and windows to prevent exhaust gases from entering the home.
  • Make sure the chimney outlet of your propane or wood-burning stove is clear of snow or ice. In houses that are said to be airtight (based on an airtightness test), wood-burning stoves should have an outdoor air intake to prevent backdrafting from the chimney or incomplete combustion.
  • Put carbon monoxide detectors in the following places:
    • on each floor,
    • in the hallway that leads to bedrooms,
    • in the room over the garage.
  • Take the necessary precautions to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Have your heating system inspected and cleaned by a specialized technician once a year.
  • Follow the instructions for using your back-up heating or lighting system.
  • Avoid opening the refrigerator or freezer door too often so that your food stays fresh for longer.
  • Sort through your food if there is an extended outage. Read the Pannes d'électricité et vos aliments : quoi garder et quoi jeter This hyperlink will open in a new window. page (Power failures and your food: what to keep and what to throw away; in French only) to find out how to avoid food poisoning.

Read the Power failure This hyperlink will open in a new window. on the Urgence Québec site too.

People at Risk

Anyone can suffer the consequences of winter storms and freezing rain. However, some people are more vulnerable:

  • People who have risk factors for heart problems, such as obesity and smoking
  • People with reduced mobility
  • People who have a heart or cardiorespiratory condition
  • People who have chronic health problems
  • People who have mental health problems
  • People who lack personal resources (for example, people who are homeless or isolated)