Each year, municipal authorities in Québec are notified of about 100 landslides and incidents of unstable ground. They often occur in spring and autumn, and they can happen more frequently during extreme weather.
Landslides occur more often in clay soil and near watercourses.
The following factors can cause landslides:
- Erosion at the bottom of a slope
- Heavy or prolonged rain
- Rapid snowmelt
- Steep slopes
- Type of soil (e.g. clay, sand)
- Filling, excavation or draining work, cutting down trees
What to do before
Prepare an emergency kit .
Prepare a family safety plan .
Ask the municipality about the risk of landslides in your area.
Avoid carrying out work that could increase soil instability, for example:
- Fill work
- Installing an above-ground pool
- Storing materials near the top of a slope
- Undercutting a bank to make your yard bigger
- Excavating the base of a slope to install a shed or in-ground pool
- Directing water toward a slope or embankment, for example to drain a pool or to direct water from eavestroughs
Report any abnormalities on your lot to the municipal authorities, for example:
- Cracks on a slope
- Bulge on a slope
- Unusual seepage of water on a bank
What to do during
If you are indoors:
- Go to the part of the building opposite the landslide and take shelter under a solid piece of furniture.
- Hold firmly onto an object that is solidly anchored until all movement has stopped.
If you are outdoors:
- Quickly move away from the probable path of the landslide. Stay far away from river banks, trees, electrical wires and utility poles.
- Do not approach the landslide area, as it often remains unstable.
Evacuate your home if it has been damaged or you are in danger, or if the authorities ask you to leave. If you don't know where to go, contact your municipality. For more details, consult the page Evacuation in the event of a disaster.
What to do after
You may return to your home when officials have given their permission and it is safe to do so. Return home during the day when it is easier to see problems and hazards. Visit the government’s reintegration page for important advice and safety recommendations.
When you arrive, take pictures or videos to document the damage to your home and notify your insurer.
Pay attention to stress reactions after an emergency situation:
- Increased use of alcohol, drugs or medication
Appropriate psychological guidance can help you cope with responsibilities stemming from the situation. Contact Info-Santé at 811 and select Info-Social to speak with a social worker. This confidential service is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Find out whether you are eligible for financial assistance
See the list of disasters for which assistance may be payable (French only) and information about the financial assistance program (French only).
Other useful links
- Map of areas potentially exposed to landslides (French only)
- Government guidelines – Landslides in unconsolidated deposits (French only)
- Érosion côtière (French only)
Last update: June 15, 2020