The Mohawk Nation has over 16,200 members. Approximately 2,700 Mohawks live outside the reserve and 13,500 are spread across three communities: Kahnawake (7,923), Akwesasne (5,600 in the Québec part of the reserve) and Kanesatake (1,388). A majority of Mohawks speak English. However, some speak their native language, while others speak French.
For several years now, the Mohawks of Kahnawake, near Montréal, have handled most of their community activity sectors. Since signing an agreement with Québec in 1984, they now assume full responsibility for the construction and operation of the Kateri Centre, a hospital. The community also has its own police force. The community’s schools, including the Kahnawake Survival School, offer a curriculum that integrates various aspects of Mohawk culture. The Akwesasne Reserve straddles the territories of New York State, Québec and Ontario. The governments of Québec, Ontario and Canada contribute to providing the Canadian Mohawk community with basic infrastructure for healthcare, social services, recreation, education, training and the administration of justice. The Kanesatake community faces a quite unusual territorial challenge. Not only do the lands acquired by the federal government for the benefit of the Mohawks not officially constitute a reserve, but they also encroach on Oka properties. This territorial dispute is still an issue in the region and was one of the causes of the 1990 Oka Crisis.