Campylobacteriosis is an intestinal infection. It is caused by Campylobacter bacteria and mostly occurs after eating contaminated food. Campylobacter bacteria is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis.
The most common symptoms of campylobacteriosis are:
Blood in stools
Symptoms generally appear 2 to 5 days, and sometimes even 10 days, after contamination. Symptoms can last 1 to 2 weeks.
In most cases, the symptoms go away without treatment. However, drinking plenty of fluids is recommended to prevent dehydration.
If symptoms persist or worsen, call Info-Santé 811 or consult a doctor. He or she will prescribe antibiotics if necessary.
In rare cases, campylobacteriosis has serious consequences. It can cause meningitis, arthritis or Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is a type of progressive muscle paralysis. In pregnant woman, Campylobacter bacteria can cause an intrauterine infection that could lead to miscarriage.
Contaminated foods are an important factor in the spread of campylobacteriosis.
A person can develop campylobacteriosis by consuming:
Raw or undercooked meat (chicken, beef liver, veal liver, etc.)
Raw or unpasteurized milk products
Untreated drinking water
A person can also develop the illness by touching contaminated objects or through close contact with infected animals or contaminated feces.
Campylobacter bacteria are mainly found in poultry and cattle. However, the bacteria can also be spread to humans through the contaminated feces of certain animals:
To prevent infection with Campylobacter bacteria, adopt good practices at home.
Wash your hands with soap and water, for example, after using the toilet, after changing a child’s diaper or after touching a person, animal or object that might be contaminated.
Wash your hands with soap and water before handling food and after handling raw meat.
Refrigerate meat as soon as possible after you buy it.
Avoid handling food if you have symptoms of gastroenteritis.
Keep healthy food separate from products that might be contaminated; contact may result in what is called cross-contamination. Use separate cutting boards for foods and clean utensils and countertops after preparing raw meat.
Be careful when cooking veal liver. A recent study showed that undercooked veal liver is a risk factor for infection with Campylobacter bacteria. To prevent the risk of contamination, follow the recommendations of the Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec (MAPAQ) for the safe cooking of liver (in French only).
Use a thermometer to check the internal temperature of foods.
People at risk
People can contract campylobacteriosis at any age, but the risk is higher in:
Seniors, especially those aged 65 and over
People with weakened immune systems
Campylobacteriosis has been a reportable disease in Québec since the early 1990s. When a test result confirms that a person has campylobacteriosis, the laboratory and the doctor must report the case to the public health authorities.