Panic disorder and agoraphobia


Feeling anxious sometimes is perfectly normal. However, you may have a panic disorder if you experience repeated and unexpected panic attacks. People experiencing a panic attack fell a sense of terror that lasts several minutes accompanied by intense physical symptoms.

The frequency and intensity of panic attacks can consume the life of the person having them. They have difficulty functioning and behaving normally at work, in society and in other areas of daily life. They are constantly afraid of experiencing another panic episode.

Panic disorder is part of the large group of anxiety disorders.

Panic disorder with agoraphobia

Agoraphobia often accompanies panic disorder. Someone with agoraphobia fears public places, often because they are afraid the place may be difficult to exit, or because it may cause them to panic. A person with agoraphobia could, for instance, be unable to go grocery shopping or go see a concert.

When agoraphobia occurs, symptoms usually appear within one year after onset of panic attacks.  


A panic attack is characterised by the sudden and unpredictable appearance of one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Heart palpitations or increased heart rate
  • Excessive sweating
  • Trembling or muscle twitching, sometimes affecting the whole body
  • Numbness or tingling sensation
  • Dizziness, vertigo or feeling that you are about to faint
  • Hot flashes or the opposite, chills
  • Nausea or abdominal discomfort
  • Feeling of tightness, as though the chest was being pushed by a weight
  • Choking or strangling feeling, having shortness of breath
  • Feeling of unreality, loss of control, going crazy
  • Fear of dying

When to consult

Do not wait to be unable to conduct your usual activities in order to consult. If you have symptoms, you can consult certain organisations and associations working with anxiety disorders. They offer information, help and support.

However, see your family doctor or another health professional if you experience one of the following situations:

  • Your panic attacks are causing you distress.
  • You have difficulty to accomplish your daily activities and fulfilling social, professional and family responsibilities.
  • You isolate yourself or limit your daily activities because you are afraid of panicking.

A health professional can assess whether you have a panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, or another health problem with similar symptoms. To be properly assessed, it could be necessary to conduct a physical exam or to prescribe laboratory tests. You will be proposed a treatment plan that is adapted to your needs.

See the Help and resources section to find resources available to you.

If you have suicidal thoughts and fear for your safety, or that of people around you, see the Preventing suicide page. You will find further information on help and resources available.


Panic disorder is an illness that can be treated. There are known treatments available to treat this disorder. Treatments allow people with panic disorder to regain control of their lives and daily activities. The earlier the person consults with a doctor, the better their chances of recovery.

In most cases, panic disorder is treated effectively with self-care, group psychological education, an intervention, psychotherapy, medication, or by a combination of some of these treatments.

Treatment for panic disorder also lowers agoraphobia. It often disappears by itself as panic attacks diminish. In rare cases, a person who is treated and has no more panic attacks can continue to have agoraphobia.

Psychotherapy sessions

Anxiety disorder experts generally recommend cognitive behavioural therapy, which aims to change the individual’s thoughts, core beliefs and problematic behaviour, and replaces them with thoughts and responses appropriate to reality. It helps understand the origins of the problem and to find solutions.

Anti-anxiety medication

Different medicines can be used to treat panic disorder, including antidepressants and anxiolytics. See the page with information on anxiety problems to learn more about:


The condition of someone with panic disorder can worsen if it is not taken seriously. See the page with information on everything you need to know about anxiety disorder complications.

Protection and prevention

If you show symptoms of panic disorder, you can act now. Advice on maintaining good mental health will help you change certain lifestyle habits. These changes will help you eliminate factors that worsen or maintain your condition.

What to do during a panic attack

If you have a panic attack, the best thing to do is to stay put and breath slowly until the attack stops.

Avoiding public places does not prevent panic attacks. On the contrary, it can strengthen your attacks and cause you to isolate yourself. Keep in mind that even the most unpleasant and intense panic attacks only last a few minutes and have never killed anyone.

Risk factors

Panic disorder has no single cause. A combination of several factors results in the onset of the disorder. These factors can be biological, hereditary, individual or environmental. See the anxiety disorder information page to learn more about the risk factors of anxiety disorders.

People at risk

More women are affected by panic disorder than men.

It generally develops at the beginning of adulthood. It is rarer in children.

Help and resources

Information and support resources

Resources are available for help and to obtain further information about panic disorder. You can consult the anxiety disorder information page to find available resources for anxiety disorders.

Resources for care and services

To receive care or services, or to find a professional with whom you are comfortable, contact one of the following resources:

Last update: October 28, 2019


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